The Kanji: traditional symbolic characters that originated in China.
The Kyōiku kanji ("education kanji") are 1006 characters that Japanese children learn in elementary school. The number was 881 until 1981.
The Jōyō kanji are 1,945 characters consisting of all the Kyōiku kanji, plus an additional 939 kanji taught in junior high and high school. The Jōyō kanji were introduced in 1981. They replaced an older list of 1,850 characters known as the General-use kanji (tōyō kanji) introduced in 1946.
Each kana is either a vowel such as "a" (あ); a consonant followed by a vowel such as "ka" (か); or "n" (ん).
Hiragana: 46 phonetic syllables used for native Japanese words.
|Hiragana (read top down right to left, starting on the top right with 'A')|
Katakana: 46 phonetic syllables used for foreign words.
|Katakana (read top down right to left, starting on the top right with 'A')|
Kodansha’s Furigana Japanese-English Dictionary
The Handbook of Japanese Adjectives and Adverbs
A Dictionary of Japanese Particles